Camilo Granados

Assistant Professor of Economics
University of Texas at Dallas

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I am an Assistant Professor of Economics in the School of Economics, Political and Policy Sciences (EPPS) at the University of Texas at Dallas (UTD). I obtained a Ph.D. in Economics at the University of Washington (UW) in 2021. My main areas of research are International Macroeconomics and International Finance. I am also interested in applied econometrics and Macroeconomics.

My current research explores the international dimension of macroprudential regulations and the best policy implementation setups that can be applied in financially integrated economies.

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Curriculum Vitae (PDF)

References: Professor Yu-chin Chen, Professor Ippei Fujiwara, Professor Fabio Ghironi.

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Working Papers

Strategic Macroprudential Policymaking: When Does Cooperation Pay Off?
I study whether emerging economies can navigate the global financial cycle more successfully by resorting to internationally coordinated macroprudential policies. For this, I set an open economy model with banking frictions in a center-periphery environment with multiple emerging economies. Then, I evaluate the performance of several policy arrangements that differ by the degree and type of cooperation. I find that cooperation can generate welfare gains but is not always beneficial relative to nationally-oriented policies. Instead, only regimes where the financial center acts cooperatively generate welfare gains. When present, two mechanisms generate the gains: a cancellation effect of national incentives to manipulate the global interest rate and a motive for steering capital flows to emerging economies. The first mechanism eliminates unnecessary policy fluctuations and the second helps prevent capital retrenchments in the center. These effects can be quantitatively relevant as good cooperation regimes can reduce the welfare losses induced by a financial friction between 60% and 80%.

[Paper] / [Slides (30 min)] / [Video (until 21:48)]

Macroprudential Policy Interactions: What has Changed Since the Global Financial Crisis?
We study the empirical international policy interactions between macroprudential regulators with the objective of determining whether these adjust their policies with cross-border strategic considerations in mind. For that, we analyze the policy-to-policy interactions for a panel of 65 economies using a local projection approach. Our findings suggest that domestic regulators do react in response to foreign policy changes positively and on average will tighten their domestic tools in response to stricter foreign financial regulations (tightenings). We apply additional specifications to disentangle the average policy effect and obtain that: (i) regulators react mainly to policy changes in advanced economies, (ii) the reaction to foreign policy changes is stronger in advanced economies, (iii) reactions to emerging regulations are less important, but can exist at the regional level (emerging-to-emerging). Additionally, results by type of foreign policy instruments suggest that, other than the typical positive response in our baseline, there can also be occasional loosening adjustments in emerging economies after foreign policy tightenings of some prudential instruments. Our results point to the existence of important policy interactions that can create the scope for coordinated policy frameworks aimed to mitigate inefficiencies in the level of macroprudential interventionism.


Macroprudential Policy Leakages in Open Economies: A Multiperipheral Approach.
To understand the international nature of the macroprudential policy and the potential cross-border regulatory leakages these imply we develop a three-country center-periphery framework with financial frictions and limited financial intermediation in emerging economies. Each country has a macroprudential instrument to smooth credit spread distortions; however, the banking regulations can leak to other economies and be subject to costs. Our results show the presence of cross-border regulation spillovers that increase with the extent of financial frictions, that are driven by the capacity of the regulation to limit aggregate intermediation, and that can be magnified if policymakers are forward-looking. We discuss the policy implications of the resulting macroprudential interdependence and the potential scope for policy design that improves the management of the trade-off between mitigating the financial frictions and curtailing intermediation.


Exchange Rate Dynamics and the Central Bank’s Balance Sheet (with Guillermo Gallacher and Janelle Mann)
Are nominal exchange rate variations linked to the central bank’s balance sheet, and in particular to remunerated domestic liabilities? We use two metrics of implied exchange rates using central bank balance sheet data: one is a traditional metric that includes the monetary base, and the other adds remunerated domestic liabilities. We first estimate a VAR model to investigate the endogenous interactions between central bank balance sheet components for a set of seven Latin American countries for the 2006:01-2019:12 period. Then, we use threshold cointegration techniques to compare these two metrics of the implied exchange rate with the spot (observed) exchange rate. We find that the implied exchange rates and the spot exchange rate are cointegrated for most of the set of Latin American countries. We also find that for a subset of our sample, the spot exchange rate adjusts to the metric that adds remunerated domestic liabilities. We conclude the remunerated domestic liabilities matter for understanding exchange rate dynamics and explore a simple theoretical setup to better understand the mechanism.


Dissecting Capital Flows: Do Capital Controls Shield Against Foreign Shocks? (with Kyongjun Kwak)
To rationalize the increased use of capital flows regulations in recent times, we study the capacity of capital flow management measures (CFMs) to insulate an economy from external shocks. We examine the extent to which CFMs mitigate the effects of US monetary shocks and whether measuring this mitigation at the net or gross level of flows matters. Our analysis is carried out for a panel of emerging market economies and for different disaggregations of the flows. Our results indicate that the level of aggregation matters for evaluating the effects of CFMs, and that analyses with excessively aggregated flows or with only net measures may lead to biases in assessing the insulation features of the CFMs. Furthermore, CFMs have insulation properties that mitigate capital repatriations; however, these are mostly related to risky portfolio and banking flows.



Estimating Potential Output After Covid: How to Address Unpredecented Macroeconomic Variations (with Daniel Parra) Economic Modelling. Volume 135, June 2024.
We examine the importance of adjusting output gap frameworks during large-scale disruptions, with a focus on the COVID-19 pandemic. Such adaptation can be crucial given the impact of such episodes on the reliability of time-series models and the inherent need for stability in output gap methods. We employ a Bayesian Structural Vector Autoregression model, identified through a permanent- transitory decomposition, and enhance it by scaling residuals around the pandemic period. Our analysis, conducted for seven developed economies, suggests that adjusting the model around the pandemic’s onset leads to improved estimates and reduced uncertainty. This approach surpasses traditional filters and other complex models lacking pandemic-timed adjustments. Notably, omitting such adjustments can result in biased and unstable gap estimates, potentially causing rapid gap recoveries post-downturns or increased volatility. Our findings underscore the importance of prompt reassessments of output gap frameworks during unprecedented global events, focusing on their stability and uncertainty.

[Publisher][Working Paper]

Work in Progress

Prices Stability and Macroeconomic Volatility Spillovers in Latin America
In order to determine the presence of volatility spillovers among macroeconomic variables a Vector Autorregresive (VAR) model with multivariate heteroskedasticity effects is carried out for five countries in Latin America. The variables considered are real activity, price level, interest rate, and exchange rate. The results indicate that there are few within country volatility spillovers. Those that are significant are usually sizable and point to the relevance of international shocks in spreading volatility to other countries rather than local effects. Finally, we obtain that the volatility of inflation is not generally affected by the uncertainty shocks in the exchange rate, this result is noticeable as the price instability effects of the exchange rate fluctuations is usually the justification behind exchange rate intervention programs in these economies.


Enhancing Economic Resiliency Through Prudential Cooperation
I analyze the short-run resilience and financial stability properties of an array of cooperative policy regimes relative to nationally-oriented regulations. I show that countries that rely on internationally coordinated policies are more insulated to the negative effects of international financial downturns like the global financial crisis. Additionally, cooperative policies allow countries to increase the countercyclicality of the prudential policies, to lower the required level of interventionism to deal with crises, and to mitigate the deleveraging processes after a financial crisis. All of these properties imply that smoother and less volatile policy responses can be compatible with improved economic performance after external shocks which makes a case for the implementation of coordinated policy schemes that go beyond the potential welfare gains involved in these initiatives.


Financial Regulation and Income Inequality (with Jasmine Jiang)